Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ]

In this article we are going to talk about Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ],

we will cover different topics on Python Object Oriented Programming, from creating classes

and objects, up to class inheritance in Python.

 

 

 

 

What is Object Oriented Programming(OOP)

As you know Python is object oriented programming language, it means that we can solve

a problem in Python language by creating classes and objects in our program. so we can

say that object oriented programming is a computer programming model that arranges

software design with data, or objects, rather than functions. there are different concepts

that you should know in object oriented programming like creating classes, creating object, 

and there are some object oriented principles like inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction

and encapsulation, particularly in this video we want to learn how you can create classes

and how you can instantiate a class in Python.

 

 

 

What are Python Classes ?

In Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ] a class is a blueprint for the objects.

or we can say that a class is a way of organizing information about a type of data, by creating

a class we can reuse elements when making multiple instances of that data type for example,

we create a class Car, now if we want to create the instances of this car class, it may be a BMW

car or Ferrari car or another type of car. the Car class would allow you to store similar

information that is unique to each car (they are different models, and maybe different colors, etc.)

and associate the appropriate information with each car.

 

 

So now let’s create a simple class, you can use class keyword followed by the name of the

class in Python. in the example we have created a simple class at name of MyClass, right

now we are not adding anything the class body.

 

 

 

 

If you want to use this class you need to instantiate the objects from this class. creating

of instance class is simple, you can just give the name of the class followed by pair of

parenthesis.

 

 

 

Add Attributes in Python Class

Right now we are not going to do anything in the class body itself,  we want to add some

attributes to a created object of the class. we have created a simple class, and after that we

have instantiated two objects from the class, after that we have assigned some attributes

to the class using dot notation.


 

 

 

Run the code and you will see this result.

How to Create Classes in Python [ Python OOP ]
How to Create Classes in Python [ Python OOP ]

 

 

Python Initializer Method

most object oriented programming languages have the concept of a constructor, a special

method that creates and initializes the object when it is created, now in python we have

initializer method this is a special method and it is called when an object is created from a

class and it allows the class to initialize the attributes of the class.

 

 

As you can see in the above example we have created an initializer method, and the

self represents the instance of the class. By using the “self” keyword we can access the

attributes and methods of the class in python, when you want to create the instance of

the class you need to pass the name and email in the class.

 

 

Python Class Attributes 

A class attribute is a Python variable that is owned by a class rather than a particular

object. It is shared between all the objects of this class and it is defined outside the

initializer method of the class.

 

 

Python Instance Attributes 

An instance attribute is a Python variable belonging to only one object.

This variable is only accessible in the scope of this object and it is defined

inside the init() method also Instance Attributes are unique to each object.

 

 

Now let’s take a look at this example, in here the email is a class attribute and it belongs

to the class, it is shared by all instances. When you change the value of a class attribute,

it will affect all instances that share the same exact value. the variable name and age are

instance variable, because they are unique to the instance, if you change one instance

variable, the second instance variable will not be affected. but in class attribute when you

change the variable, it will affect all the instances.

 

 

 

Add Methods in Python Class

Now let’s add method in the class, take a look at this example.

 

 

 

Python Class Inheritance

Now we are going to talk about Python Class Inheritance,

Class inheritance is one of the most important concepts in Object Oriented Programming,

if you are familiar with other OOP programming languages like Java or C++, so it has the

same concepts, basically a class inheritance allows us to create a relationship between two

or more classes. now in object oriented programming one class can inherit attributes and

methods from another class.

 

 

So now let’s take a look at this image example.

Python Class Inheritance
Python Class Inheritance

 

 

 

If you take a look at the above image, we have created two classes, the first class is

Class A, in this class we have created two variables and also we have a method. in the

term of Object Oriented Programming, we can call this class as base class, parent class

or super class. we have another class that is Class B, and this class inherited from the

Class A, for this class we can call derived class, child class or sub class. now in class

inheritance when a class extends from another class, the derived class can access to all

attributes and methods of the base class. for example in here our Class B can access to

the fnamelname and full_name() method of our Class A or base class.

 

 

 

Let’s create a practical example in Python Class Inheritance.

 

 

In the above code we have a base class and we have a derived class, in the base class

we have some instance attributes and a method for printing the variables. now our derived

class can access to all attributes and methods of the base class, for example Student class

can access to the nameemail variables and also full_info() method.

 

 

 

You can see that in here we have created the instance for our Student class not

Person class, and in the Student class we don’t have any attributes like name and

email or a method for printing the information, these are added in the Person class.

 

 

 

Run the code and this will be the result.

Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ]
Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ]

 

 

 

Python Super() Function 

Now we want to talk about Super() Function in Python, Python Super()

Function is used for accessing to the methods and properties of the parent class or base

class, and super function returns a proxy object.

 

 

Now let’s create a practical example on Python Super() function.

 

in the above code we have two classes, the first class is Person class and it is our

parent class, we have our initializer method in this class, also in the initializer we are

just printing some texts in the console. the second class is Student class and it is a child

class of the Person class, and in here also we are going to print something in the console.

now if you run this code you will see that it is not calling the base class initializer method,

but it is calling the derived class initializer method.

 

 

This is the result and as we can see it is calling the derived class initializer method.

Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ]
Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ]

 

 

Now what if we want to call our base class initializer method, for that we

are going to use the super function in Python, let’s bring changes to our code

and add the super function.

 

 

Run the code and you will see that it is calling the base class initializer method.

Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ]
Python Object Oriented Programming [ Python OOP ]

 

 

Let’s create another example

 

In this code, Person is a super (parent) class, while Student is a derived (child) class.

The usage of the super function allows the child class to access  the parent class’s init()

 property. In other words, super() allows you to build classes that easily extend the

functionality of previously built classes without implementing their functionality again.

 

 

 

Run the code and this is the result.

What is Super Function
What is Super Function

 

 

 

Python Method Overriding 

Now we want to talk about  Method Overriding in Python, so method overriding is

used for changing the implementation of a method provided by one of it is parent or

base class.

 

 

 

OK let’s create our practical example on Method Overriding in Python

 

So in the above example we have two classes, the first class is our Person Class and

it is our base class, also we have added a method of def full_name() , on the other hand

we have another class at name of Student class and this class is extending from the base class,

so for this we can say that it is a derived class, now you can see that we have the same name

method in our derived class, when you have two methods with the same name and different

implementation that is called Method Overriding, and these two methods have their own

implementation, even tough they have the same name but the implementations are different.

 

 

If you run the code you can see that we have different implementation for the

same method name.

Method Overriding in Python
Method Overriding in Python

 

 

 

Python Multiple Inheritance 

In this second we want to talk about Multiple Inheritance in Python, so first of all

what is Multiple Inheritance in Python, if a class extends from more than one class,

that is called multiple inheritance.

 

 

Now let’s look at this image example.

Python Multiple Inheritance
Python Multiple Inheritance

 

In the above image we have three classes, Class A and Class B are our base class,

also we have another class that is Class C, now this Class C  extends from Class A

and Class B, as we have already said that if a class extends from more than one class,

that is called multiple inheritance. in here our C Class extends from two base classes,

now the C class can access to all attributes and methods of the Class A and Class B.

 

 

Let’s create a practical example for Multiple Inheritance.

 

 

In the above example we have two base classes and the third class is extending

from these two base class, and if you see in our base classes we have methods,

after extending Class C can access to these two methods.

 

 

 

Run the code and this is the result.

Multiple Inheritance in Python
Multiple Inheritance in Python

 

 

 

Let’s create another example, in this example we want to override a method in to

our base classes, also we are going to talk about Method Resolution Order (MRO).

 

You can see that when we are extending our Class C, we have the order of B and A,

now it will first check the method in the C class, if it does not find the method in the C class,

than it checks the B Class, now it means that the order matters in Python Multiple Inheritance,

if we run this code you will see that first we have our B Class method.

 

 

Python Multi Level Inheritance

In this section we want to learn about Multi Level Inheritance in Python, so

in object oriented programming when you inherits a derived class from another

derived class this is called multi level inheritance and it can be done at any depth.

 

 

Now let’s take a look at this image.

Python Multi Level Inheritance
Python Multi Level Inheritance

 

 

 

If you see in the above image we have three classes, we have a Class A,

this class is our base class. we have another Class B, this class extends from

the base Class A. we have another Class C, now this class extends from Class B.

as we have already said when you extends a derived class from another derived

class this is called multi level inheritance and it can be done at any depth. now our

Class B can access to all attributes and method of the Class A, and our Class C can

access to all attributes and methods of the Class A and Class B.

 

 

 

Now let’s create a practical example, in this example we have our base class that is

class Person, in this class we have created a method. we have two more classes,

one is class Student and it is extending from class Person, there is a method in this

class. also we have another class that is class Programmer, this class extends from

the Student class. now if you create the instance of the Programmer class, this class

can access to the method of the Person and Student classes.

 

 

 

Now run your code and this will be the result.

Python Multi Level Inheritance
Python Multi Level Inheritance

 

 

 

 

As i have already said you can create Python Multi Level Inheritance at any depth.

 

 

 

Python Hierarchical Inheritance

In this part we want to learn about Hierarchical Inheritance in Python,

so in python object oriented programming When more than one derived classes

are created from a single base class that is called hierarchical inheritance.

 

 

 

Now let’s take a look at this image.

Python Hierarchical Inheritance
Python Hierarchical Inheritance

 

 

 

If you see in the image, we have four classes, Class A is our base or parent class,

we have another three classes and all of them are extending from just one base class,

as i have already said When more than one derived classes are created from a single

 base class that is called hierarchical inheritance. now there is a relationship between

Class A and three derived classes(B, C, D), but there is no relationship between the

derived classes, it means that we have a relationship between base class and derived

classes, but there is no relationship between derived classes, for example we don’t

have any relationship between Class B, Class C and Class D.

 

 

 

Now let’s create practical example in Python Hierarchical Inheritance

 

 

 

In the example we have three python classes, class Animal is our base class and we have

two more classes that are inheriting from just one base class. we have relationship between

Class Animal and Class Cat, also between Class Animal and Class Dog, but there is no

relationship between Class Cat and Class Dog.

 

 

 

Run the code and this is the result.

Python Inheritance Type
Python Inheritance Type

 

Thank you for visiting my website! If you enjoyed the free courses, please consider supporting my works on Patreon.

Leave a Comment