In this lesson we want to learn about Python Twisted: Building Scalable and Highly-Concurrent Network Applications.
What is Python Twisted ?
Python Twisted is widely used event-driven network programming framework that is well-suited for building scalable and highly-concurrent network applications. developed in 2002, Twisted has become popular choice for Python developers who needs to build network applications that can handle high volume of requests without sacrificing performance or stability.
In this article we will explore some of the key features of Twisted and how it can be used to build powerful network applications.
At the heart of Twisted is its event-driven programming model. instead of relying on multiple threads or processes to handle multiple connections, Twisted uses single thread that is responsible for handling all events. this approach allows for more efficient use of system resources and ensures that network applications built with Twisted can scale effectively.
Twisted provides number of protocols for building network applications, including TCP, UDP, SSL, and SSH. these protocols are implemented as separate modules within the Twisted framework, which makes it easy for developers to add support for new protocols if needed.
Twisted makes extensive use of asynchronous I/O, which allows network applications to handle large number of connections without blocking. this approach helps to ensure that network applications built with Twisted are highly responsive, even under heavy load.
Twisted comes with number of built-in tools that make it easier to build network applications. for example, the Twisted reactor allows developers to write code that reacts to events in non-blocking way, while the Deferred object provides a way to manage callbacks in more structured manner.
Twisted can be used as an application server, allowing developers to build network applications that can handle multiple clients concurrently. this approach is well-suited for building applications such as chat servers, online gaming platforms and other real-time applications.
How to Install Python Twisted ?
Installing Python Twisted is fairly straightforward process. these are the steps you can follow to install Twisted:
- Make sure you have Python installed on your system. You can download Python from the official website: https://www.python.org/downloads/
- Once Python is installed, you can install Twisted using the Python package manager
pip. Open your command prompt or terminal and run the following command:
pip install twisted
- This will download and install the latest version of Twisted from the Python Package Index.
- After the installation is completed, you can verify that Twisted is installed by opening Python interpreter and typing:
If there are no errors, then Twisted is installed and ready to use.
That’s it! With these simple steps, you can easily install Twisted and start building high-performance network applications with Python.
This is simple example of using Twisted to build TCP echo server that listens for incoming connections and sends back any data that it receives:
from twisted.internet import protocol, reactor
def dataReceived(self, data):
def buildProtocol(self, addr):
if __name__ == '__main__':
In this example, we define
Protocol subclass called
Echo that simply echoes back any data that it receives. we also define
Factory subclass called
EchoFactory that creates instances of
Echo protocol whenever a new connection is made.
Finally, in the
main block, we use the Twisted reactor to listen for incoming TCP connections on port 8000 and create instances of the
EchoFactory to handle them. the reactor is then started with the
With this simple code, we’ve created a TCP echo server that can handle multiple connections concurrently using the event-driven model provided by Twisted.
Learn More on Python
- Python Requests Library: A Guide to Simplifying HTTP Requests
- Asynchronous Web Development with Python and aiohttp
- Python Treq: An Introduction to a Powerful HTTP Client Library
- Introduction to Python httplib2 Library
- An Introduction to Python’s urllib Library
- Python httpx: A High-Performance HTTP Client for Python 3